cropped-supporters_of_britain_red_liberation.pngSocialists and the EU Elections 2019


Against all imperialist states – both EU as well as national states! Open borders for migrants! For the United Socialist States of Europe!


Statement of the Revolutionary Communist International Tendency (RCIT), 11 April 2019,




  1. The upcoming elections in the European Union take place in a climate of crisis and decay. The looming next Great Recession has already resulted in the decline of industrial production in Germany and Italy. The never-ending Brexit crisis is a direct expression of the conflict between warring camps of the ruling classes of Europe. The majority of big capital supports the imperialist EU and advocates a further deepening of European integration. These forces are politically represented by conservative and liberal parties (e.g. the German CDU, Macron’s list in France, Italy’s PD). They have also found support among a number of social democratic parties of the Blair-ite type (e.g. the German SPD or the Swedish SAP).


  1. In contrast, other sectors of the bourgeoisie want to weaken the EU integration and strengthen the nation state. These class forces are represented by mostly right-wing conservative and populist parties (e.g. the French FN, the German AfD, Salvini’s Lega, Orban’s FIDESZ, the Polish PiS, Austria’s FPÖ, etc.).


  1. These two camps differ in their strategies of how to: strengthen the position of European corporations on the world market, intensify the exploitation of the working class, and formulate an ideology that advances and consolidates their domination. The imperialist pro-EU camp advocates stronger political and economic pan-European institutions as well as a pan-European liberal ideology. They understand that the political and economic interests of monopoly capital can only be promoted globally if imperialist Europe stands united against its rivals in the US, China, Russia, and Japan. They also advocate the expansion of the police state in order to surveil citizens and suppress migrants (in particular Muslim migrants) as well as rebellious domestic elements (e.g. the Yellow Vests in France or the Catalan independence movement). Likewise, they want to reinforce the imperialist Fortress Europe against migration from the poor countries in order to more ably control who is allowed to enter the EU (preferably young, skilled and low-wage labor forces) and who is not. The right-wing nationalist camp advocates a similar policy but wants to prioritize its implementation at the national level. They also advocate a more rabid national chauvinism. However, both camps fundamentally agree on the necessity of implementing austerity policies and the deployment of troops for operations abroad (e.g. in Africa, Afghanistan) in order to safeguard imperialist interests.


  1. A focus of this strategic antagonism with European imperialism is the agony of Britain’s Brexit. This tragical-comical process demonstrating the utter impotence of the country’s bourgeois leadership reflects the dead end the ruling class finds itself in. On one hand the majority of the capitalist class, the Liberals as well as the Blair-ite wing of Labour (plus some pseudo-left wing campaigns financed by George Soros) have strongly favored Britain remaining inside the EU. On the other hand, an anti-EU faction of the bourgeoisie represented by the majority of the Tories who – with the tacit support of the Corbyn wing (plus centrist forces like the SPEW/CWI and the SWP) – want to implement the result of the 2016 referendum for Britain to leave the EU.


  1. The workers and oppressed of Europe must defend their political independence. They must not be used as servants for the interests of either the pro-EU or pro-nation state capitalists. Neither the imperialist European Union nor an “independent” imperialist nation state serves the interests of the working class. They are the Scylla and Charybdis of austerity policies and the suppression of democratic rights. The only way forward for workers and the oppressed is to fight against the capitalist governments (both within and outside of the EU) and to unite in struggle across national borders.


  1. The working class in Europe is faced with a tremendous crisis of leadership. The social democratic parties and trade union bureaucracies are strongly committed to the project of creating a powerful imperialist Europe. They are willing partners in governments that implement austerity policies, expand the racist Fortress Europe, and launch military operations around the globe. Examples of this include German SPD support for the Bundeswehr intervention in Mali and Afghanistan and the French PSF support for the dispatch of troops to Mali, Iraq and Syria. Authentic socialists must fight against the betrayals of social democracy while simultaneously embracing the application of the united front tactic where and when appropriate.


  1. The more militant and progressive sectors of the working class and youth have been dominated by left-reformist and petty-bourgeois left-populist forces such as Jean-Luc Mélenchon’s “La France insoumise” in France, Podemos-IU in Spain, the German Linkspartei, the Bloco de Esquerda in Portugal or the Danish Enhedslisten. In Britain the Labour Party has moved in a left-reformist direction with Jeremy Corbyn overcoming the Blair-ite party establishment. Despite their radical rhetoric (“citizen’s revolution” etc.), however, these reformist forces have followed a bourgeois-parliamentarian strategy. Whenever the ruling class has allowed them to participate in government they have proven themselves more than willing accomplices in the pursuit of profit and imperialist power. This was demonstrated when the French Communist Party participated in a government that joined the imperialist war against Serbia in 1999 and against Afghanistan in 2001. Further examples were the support of Fausto Bertinotti’s Rifondazione Comunista for the neoliberal Prodi government and the implementation of harsh austerity policies by SYRIZA in Greece (which has been in a ruling alliance with the right-wing nationalist ANEL since 2015). In Britain the Labour Party experienced the aggressive campaign of the Blair-ite and pro-Zionist wing that resulted in the expulsion of pro-Palestine activists under the false pretext of “Anti-Semitism”. This shameful assault, however, faced no real resistance by the Corbyn leadership. In numerous instances such left-reformist and left-populist parties have postured as “radical opposition parties” supporting protest. This has been the role of Mélenchon’s LFI in the Yellow Vests movement and, equally, of Podemos in the popular protests.


  1. The Revolutionary Communist International Tendency (RCIT) has continuously emphasized that any illusions in such left-reformist and left-populist parties are completely misplaced. These forces will inevitably betray workers and the oppressed and serve the direct interests of the ruling class. SYRIZA is only the latest example of this phenomenon. The strategic goal must be the construction of a political alternative to these reformist forces, i.e. revolutionary parties nationally and internationally. Such parties will advocate a program of uncompromising class struggle against austerity, racism, and imperialist war. They will additionally combine such a program with the goal of a socialist revolution aimed at the expropriation of the bourgeoisie and the unification of Europe on a socialist basis.


  1. However, building such parties does not take place in a vacuum. It can only succeed by direct intervention in the struggles of the working class on the basis of an unambiguous socialist program. Since many progressive workers and youth will use the EU election as a vehicle to express their protest, socialists would be mistaken to ignore this. Quite the opposite, revolutionaries must advocate a socialist program and patiently explain their criticism of those left-reformist and left-populist parties to which these progressive workers and youth presently address their desire for change. Socialists must combine this with calling for a critical vote for such parties in the EU elections. Such a tactic applies for example to the Mélenchon’s LFI, Podemos, the Linkspartei, Labour in Britain, the Bloco de Esquerda or the Enhedslisten. It does not apply to SYRIZA, the executor of a barbaric austerity program for the past four years in Greece.


  1. The Revolutionary Communist International Tendency (RCIT) calls on socialists to unite in the struggle to build a revolutionary party – nationally as well as internationally. Join the RCIT!


* Stop the austerity policy! For mass demonstrations and strikes up to an indefinite general strike! Build action committees in the workplaces, schools and neighborhoods to organize the struggle! Build a rank and file movement in the trade unions in order to advance the fight against the bureaucracy and drive them out of the workers movement!


* Defend democratic rights! No police state! Down with all repressive laws!


* Stop the harassment of Muslim migrants! Mobilize against racist and Islamophobic campaigns! For self-defense units, created by organizations of the workers’ movement and migrant communities. Protect refugees’ hostels and mosques against racist attacks!


* For a program of revolutionary equality for migrants – equal wages and access to housing, full citizenship rights, equal status for all migrants’ native languages in education and public administration! Open the borders for migrants and refugees!


* Defeat Imperialism – Solidarity with the Resistance! US, Russia, France and any other Great Power: Hands off Syria! Troops out of Afghanistan and Mali! Solidarity with the resistance struggle against the occupiers!


* Solidarity with the Arab Revolution! Support the ongoing liberation struggles against the reactionary dictatorships in Syria, in Algeria, in Sudan, in Egypt and in Iran! Victory to the Palestinian resistance against the Zionist state! Support the Yemeni people against Saudi aggression!


* Neither Brexit nor Remain! No support for any imperialist state – neither the EU nor the nation state! For international struggle of the workers and people! For the United Socialist States of Europe!




European Secretariat of the RCIT




We refer readers to the sub-section our website where the RCIT has published numerous booklets, statements and articles on Europe: In particular we draw attention to the following documents:


Joseph Adams: Brexit: Theresa May Government on the Verge of Collapse, Fight for an End to Austerity! Organize against the Brexit Chaos! 26 February 2019,


RCIT: World Perspectives 2017, Chapter VIII. Europe in the Era of Chauvinism, Militarization and Brexit,


RCIT: Increasing Instability and Militarization in the European Union. On the Tasks of Revolutionaries in the New Political Phase which has Opened in Europe after the Terrorist Attack in Paris, 08.12.2015,


RCIT: Catalunya/Catalonia: Election under the Shadow of Madrid’s Tyranny! 20 December 2017,


Michael Pröbsting: The Reformist Pipe Dream of a “Socialist” European Union, 01.10.2018,


Michael Pröbsting: The British Left and the EU-Referendum: The Many Faces of pro-UK or pro-EU Social-Imperialism, August 2015,




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cropped-supporters_of_britain_red_liberation.pngStop the imperialist witch-hunt against WikiLeaks and Assange! Defend Ecuador against neo-colonial threats by the UK government!

Stop the imperialist witch-hunt against WikiLeaks founder Assange!

Down with US, UK and Swedish imperialism! Defend Ecuador against neo-colonial threats by the UK government!

Statement of the Revolutionary Communist International Tendency (RCIT), 25.8.2012


1.            The witch-hunt against Julian Assange, editor-in-chief and founder of WikiLeaks, has escalated after the British government threatened to storm the Ecuadorian embassy where he found political asylum. The British Tory/Liberal government justified these threats with the need to extradite Assange to Sweden for questioning him over rape allegations. While many progressive forces rightly defend Assange and his right to leave Britain to Ecuador, a significant part of the British left capitulates to the imperialist pressure and supports the desire of British and Swedish imperialism to extradite the WikiLeaks founder to Sweden. The workers movement must derive its position on assessing the various class interests which are involved in this case.

2.            The political background of the with-hunt against Assange is the WikiLeaks’ releases of secret cables in the past years. By these activities WikiLeaks has revealed a number of US imperialisms’ and many other governments’ criminal activities and conspiracies. One of the most famous leaks, in April 2010, was the video showing how US soldiers killed nine Iraqi civilians and two Reuters journalist in 2007. Recently Wikileaks disclosed the Western Connection of the reactionary Assad regime Syria. Wikileaks is no socialist or working class organization but rather a radical petty-bourgeois democratic media organization. Through its activities it has damaged the interests of US imperialism and many other bourgeois regimes around the world and thus provoked their united hatred and determination to silence WikiLeaks and its leading figure Assange. The activities of WikiLeaks in exposing the imperialist crimes and intrigues have therefore been beneficial for the working class struggle against our class enemy – the ruling capitalist classes.

3.            The imperialists’ fanatical determination to silence Julian Assange has become particularly obvious in the past weeks. While the British government didn’t care to extradite the Chilean ex-dictator and mass murder Augusto Pinochet, it even considers the unprecedented act of storming the Ecuadorian embassy and thus violating the national sovereignty. This shows that the struggle to defend Julian Assange has a double democratic and anti-imperialist character: The workers movement must defends the petty-bourgeois progressive media organization WikiLeaks against the attacks of the imperialist governments and it must defend semi-colonial countries like Ecuador against the bullying of the same imperialist governments.

4.            British centrist organizations like the SWP, the AWL or groups like ACI and petty-bourgeois media celebrities like Owen Jones join the Tory government desire to extradite Assange to Sweden. This is nothing but a capitulation towards the pressure of their ruling class. Their justification for this pathetic position is, that the rape charge against Assange “should be taken seriously”.

5.            One must be either totally naïve and stupid or consciously lying to ignore the following facts:

a) It is a proven fact that the US government has issued a sealed indictment against Assange and is trying hard to bring him to the USA and put him in prison to silence him forever.

b) It is a proven fact – as Australian diplomatic cables revealed – that “WikiLeaks is the target of an ‘unprecedented’ US government criminal investigation”. Any person with sense knows that the US government is pressurizing every – including the Swedish – government which could help them to catch Assange.

c) It is bizarre that so-called Marxists “forget” or want to forget that Sweden’s’ government and judicial authority are not neutral but have a class character: they are bourgeois and imperialist. To believe that the Swedish bourgeois authorities would objectively investigate the accusations against Assange is utmost stupid! The Swedish capitalist state doesn’t care about the defense of women and women rights – despite their official claims. Quite the opposite, it is an essential part of the system which oppresses women. Do these leftists not know that the so called pro-women Swedish state never dared to investigate the sex life of its King Gustav who – according to the book “The Reluctant Monarch” – had many appearances in strip clubs, sex parties organized by criminals etc.?! Do they not know that the Swedish secret service Sapo systematically pressurized the women who were the unfortunate victims of the Swedish king to hand over compromising pictures and videos?! And this reactionary anti-women Swedish state apparatus should objectively investigate the case of a person like Asange who is hated by most ruling classes around the globe?!

d) The case against Assange is most likely a politically manipulated frame-up. It raises the suspicion of any sensible person that the rape allegations against Assange came up in August 2010, immediately (!) after WikiLeaks released thousands of secret US cables about the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, which exposed lies and criminal conduct by Western forces. The charges against Assange were so weak that the Swedish prosecutors initially dropped the case. Chief prosecutor Eva Finné said: “I don’t think there is reason to suspect that he has committed rape”. It was reopened after (!) the intervention from Swedish politicians. An arrest warrant for Assange was put out in December 2010, immediately (!) after WikiLeaks began releasing secret cables from US embassies, exposing yet more crimes and lies. How can one ignore the link to the political interests of the ruling classes!?

e) How can it not raise the suspicion of these British leftists that the former US president Bush advisor Karl Rove has been working directly as an advisor to the governing Moderate Party in Sweden and that the Assange accusers’ lawyer is a partner in the law firm Borgström and Bodström, whose other name partner, Thomas Bodström, is a former Swedish Minister of Justice?! And that this Bodström helped to approve a 2001 CIA rendition request to Sweden, to allow the CIA to fly two asylum-seekers from Sweden to Egypt, where they were tortured?!

f) How can these so-called “anti-capitalists” forget the simple fact that every ruling class in the world has its secret services which are paid for to organize regularly conspiracies and frame-ups? Is it not likely, that when these governments are desperate to silence Assange, that they use their secret services for this?!

g) The charges of rape against Assange are in itself highly contradictory as the well-known US liberal feminist Naomi Wolf showed. She concluded: “Based on my 23 years of reporting on global rape law, and my five years of supporting women at rape crisis centers and battered women’s shelters, I can say with certainty that this case is not being treated as a normal rape or sexual assault case.” (Naomi Wolf: Something Rotten in the State of Sweden: 8 Big Problems with the ‘Case’ Against Assange, Similarly, activists like Katrin Axelsson and Lisa Longstaff from the campaign “Women Against Rape” are clear about the dubious accusations: “It seems even clearer now, that the allegations against him are a smokescreen behind which a number of governments are trying to clamp down on WikiLeaks for having audaciously revealed to the public their secret planning of wars and occupations with their attendant rape, murder and destruction.” (Katrin Axelsson and Lisa Longstaff: We are Women Against Rape but we do not want Julian Assange extradited,, 23rd August 2012 These honest democrats and liberals are more progressive than a major part of the centrist left in Britain.

h) If the Swedish state would really – as it officially claims – only be interested in investigating and not arresting Assange, why don’t they send representatives to London to interview him?!

i) Of course no one can exclude the possibility of any wrong behavior of Julian Assange. But the state apparatus of the ruling classes – be it in Sweden, Britain or the USA – who are desperate to silence him are definitely not the institutions whom any democratic and sincere person should trust to judge objectively on this. Under the present circumstances the best option seems to be that Assange can get exile in Ecuador. An independent international commission consisting of representatives of workers and women organizations should investigate the accusations against Assange.

6.            The task of the workers movement and all progressive forces today is to defend Julian Assange against the attempts of the imperialist governments to silence him and WikiLeaks. This is why the RCIT oppose the attempts by the British state to extradite him to Sweden. This is why no person with sense should trust the Swedish state apparatus. This is why we oppose the petty-bourgeois left who give cover for the imperialist campaign against Assange by calling him to hand himself over to the Swedish state. The struggle to defend Assange and to defend Ecuador against British imperialist pressure is an anti-imperialist duty which deserves the support of all workers and progressive movements.

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cropped-supporters_of_britain_red_liberation.pngAlgeria and Sudan: Two Important Victories and a Warning


No trust in the army command and the old elite! Continue the Revolution!


Statement of the Revolutionary Communist International Tendency (RCIT), 11 April 2019 (16.00 UTC Time),




  1. People are joyfully marching in Khartoum and throughout Sudan. The long-time dictator, Omar al-Bashir, has been overthrown. This comes only a few days after the resignation of another reactionary despot, Algeria’s President, Abdelaziz Bouteflika. These are important victories for those courageous heroes who fought for weeks and months in the streets despite brutal repression by each regime’s security forces.


  1. The Revolutionary Communist International Tendency (RCIT) enthusiastically welcomes these developments. Our comrades participated in solidarity rallies – as they have, consistently, since the 2011 beginning of the Great Arab Revolution. The resignations of Bashir and Bouteflika are not only victories for the Sudanese and Algerian peoples. These are also victories for the Syrians fighting against the tyrant Assad, for the Egyptians resisting the military dictatorship of General Sisi, as well as all others fighting for their political, social, and economic freedom!


  1. The resignations of Bashir and Bouteflika have shattered the capitalist dictatorships in Sudan and Algeria. However, we are obligated to temper our joy with sober warnings. The experience of the Arab Revolution since 2011 has demonstrated that the ruling class is driven to deceive popular mass movements when they become too strong. In such situations the elite – often following the lead of the army command – is prepared to “sacrifice” the face of the regime in order to preserve the underlying “system”, i.e. the state machinery of the privileged ruling stratum. General Ahmed Awad Ibn Auf’s declaration of a three-month state of emergency in Sudan as well as the plan of the military council to rule for two years demonstrates that the ruling elite wants to stay in power. A very similar development is taking place in Algeria where army chief General Ahmed Gaid Salah has taken over de facto control.


  1. We have seen this in Egypt, in Tunisia, and in Yemen. In each of these cases, the elite felt it necessary to make a strategic retreat in the form of democratic concessions. By such concessions they conspired to defuse the mass movement. This process was aided by numerous bourgeois traitors who pretended to support the democratic revolution while, in reality, they only hoped to advance their own career ambitions and fill the vacancies in the state apparatus. This process was unfortunately also unintentionally aided by many well-meaning and honest democratic activists and grassroots leaders who didn’t understood that the political changes were intentionally superficial, leaving, in the end, the capitalist power system – including the strong army and rich capitalists – intact.


  1. The fundamentals were unchanged. The elite and the army remained in power and retained all their money and their weapons. Economic control continued in the hands of domestic and foreign capitalists. The army kept all the instruments of repression, buttressed by their paralyzing grip on the economy. Likewise, the countries in revolt continued to be dominated by imperialist Great Powers such as the U.S., Russia, the EU, and China. As a result, the working people remained in a state of relative powerlessness. When the dynamic of the mass mobilizations receded, the ruling elites retaliated and restored their representatives to positions of power. They did so either by a coup d’état (Egypt – 3 July 2013) or via pseudo-democratic elections (Tunisia).


  1. The RCIT has supported the Arab Revolution from the very first day. We have always stressed that an authentic democratic revolution requires more than a change of faces. The entire system of repression, wealth, and corruption in the service of a small elite must be smashed! Based on the lesson of the past eight years – we continue to emphasize that the only way forward is the expropriation of the whole elite! All domestic and foreign corporations must be nationalized and placed under the control of workers! The army command, the police and secret services must be smashed and replaced by popular militias! Only this ensures that the armed power is under the control of the working people. Political power must be put into the hands of popular councils elected and controlled at regular mass assemblies in the workplaces, neighborhoods and villages. As the issue of constitution and democracy remains a burning issue we call for the convening of a Revolutionary Constituent Assembly. The popular masses must be armed so that the old elite cannot manipulate the process and subvert the will of the people.


  1. In other words, the RCIT calls the heroic people in Sudan and Algeria to continue the revolution and to fight until the victory is complete. We also call upon them to link their insurgencies to the ongoing liberation struggles in Syria, Palestine, Tunisia, Jordan, Iran, Yemen and other countries. The revolution must be spread to the entire Arab world and throughout the rest of Africa. We also call upon supporters of the Arab Revolution to come to the rescue of the Libyan people who face a massive counter-revolutionary threat with General Haftar trying to conquer Tripoli to smash the last remaining remnants of the revolutionary process of 2011.


  1. In the wake of the beginning second wave of the Arab Revolution, we repeat our condemnation of those Stalinist, Bolivarian and other pseudo-leftists who have slandered the Arab Revolution as “Islamofascist” and “CIA-led color revolutions”. They have, consequently, ended up supporting Assad, General Sisi, Gaddafi, Haftar, the YPG and Russian imperialism. There are also others who did not join the bloody counterrevolution but suspended their support for the Arab Revolution after some years by mistakenly confusing the setbacks with final defeat and by wrongly denouncing the liberation struggle of the popular masses as “reactionary” just because the initially prevailing petty-bourgeois democratic ideology has been increasingly colored with shades of petty-bourgeois Islamism. We call those who relinquished their support for the Arab Revolution to overcome their prejudices and to return to the struggle. Comrades, now it is high time to side with the working people fighting in Algiers, Khartoum, Idlib, Tripoli, Sanaʽa, Gaza, Cairo and Teheran and to unite the struggles into a single Intifada of the entire Middle East!


  1. Comrades, brother and sisters! The Arab Revolution has suffered many defeats since 2011 due to the lack of strong revolutionary parties. Building such parties – in combination with building a Revolutionary World Party – is the most urgent task of our time! Now, with the beginning of the second wave of the Arab Revolution, we must tackle this task energetically! We urge activists to unite in a revolutionary party based on a program of socialist liberation and solidarity with the struggles of workers and oppressed in other countries. Join the RCIT in tackling this great task!


* Down with any self-proclaimed “transitional government” and “military council”! No “state of emergency”! Full democratic rights to demonstrate, to assembly and to organize!


* Continue the mobilizations! Continue the Revolution!


* Build committees of action at work places, neighborhoods, universities and villages! Elect delegates for a national congress!


* Create self-defense committees!


* For a Revolutionary Constituent Assembly!


* For a workers and poor peasants government!


* Forward to the second wave of the Arab Revolution! Long live the socialist world revolution!


* For a revolutionary party as part of a revolutionary world party!




International Bureau of the RCIT




* * * * *




We refer readers to our website where the RCIT has published numerous booklets, statements and articles on these issues. In particular we draw attention to the following documents:


Algeria: Bouteflika Retreats! Now Let Us Defeat His System! Organize Committees of Action! For a General Strike and Popular Insurrection to bring down the regime! For a Workers and Poor Peasants Government! 12 March 2019,


Algeria: Victory to the Popular Insurgency against Bouteflika and his System! 9 March 2019,


Sudan: Bring Down the Regime of Omar al-Bashir! 28 December 2018,


Report (with Photos and Videos): Sudan: Rally in Solidarity with the Popular Uprising, 6 April 2019, Austrian Section of the RCIT,


Report (with Photos and Videos): Sudan: Rally in Solidarity with the Popular Uprising against the dictatorship of Omar al-Bashir, 13 January 2019,


Libya: Defend Tripoli! Defeat Haftar! For Popular Militias to organize an independent struggle against the counterrevolution! 9 April 2019,


Report (with Pictures and Video): Rally at the 8th Anniversary of the Syrian Revolution, 17 March 2019,


On the Syrian Revolution we refer readers also to a special sub-section on our website:


Michael Pröbsting: Is the Syrian Revolution at its End? Is Third Camp Abstentionism Justified? 5 April 2017,


Michael Pröbsting: Syria and Great Power Rivalry: The Failure of the „Left“, 21 April 2018,


Solidarity with Gaza! Statement by the Internationalist Socialist League (RCIT Section in Israel / Occupied Palestine), 18.07.2018,


Yossi Schwartz: Israel as a Colonial Entity, 26.06.2018,


Report (with Photos and Videos): Rally on the 8th Anniversary of the Egypt Revolution 2011, 27 January 2019,


Joint Statement: Warmongering in the Middle East: Down with all Imperialist Great Powers and Capitalist Dictatorships! 13 May 2018,


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cropped-supporters_of_britain_red_liberation.pngLibya: Defend Tripoli! Defeat Haftar!


For Popular Militias to organize an independent struggle against the counterrevolution!


Statement of the Revolutionary Communist International Tendency (RCIT), 9 April 2019,




  1. The 75-year old, self-proclaimed “field marshal” Khalifa Haftar has launched an attempt to conquer Tripoli, the capital of Libya, and to impose his rule over the entire country. This has resulted in the biggest escalation of the ongoing civil war since the fall of the dictatorship of Muammar Gaddafi in 2011. For now, the attack of Haftar’s so-called Libyan National Army (LNA) has been stopped by a counter-offensive of militia forces from Tripoli, Misrata, Zentan and Zawiya.


  1. The Revolutionary Communist International Tendency (RCIT) calls for the defense of Tripoli and for the defeat of Haftar’s troops. We lend no political support to the so-called Government of National Accord (GNA) – a weak bourgeois government based in Tripoli having little authority. While this government is formally recognized by the United Nations, it receives only lukewarm support from the Great Powers.


  1. It is evident that General Haftar represents, by far, the most serious threat to the remaining gains of the unfinished democratic revolution of autumn 2011. Haftar is a former officer of the Gaddafi regime with a shady record (after deserting Gaddafi in 1987 he joined the CIA; he returned to Libya in 2011 but returned later to the U.S. after a brief career in the ranks of the Libyan Revolution; recently he also played a role in trading Libya’s oil to Russian state corporations). In 2014 he launched the so-called Operation Dignity, a sustained and ongoing military campaign against various petty-bourgeois militias that emerged out of the revolutionary process. General Haftar is the henchman of those forces in the Middle East that express the most rabid hostility to the gains of the Arab Revolution: the arch-reactionary monarchies of Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates as well as the bloody, military dictatorship of General Sisi in Egypt. Without the massive financial and military support of these regimes, Haftar would have no chance at succeeding in his plans. Haftar has also received crucial support from imperialist Russia as well as other Great Powers. The RCIT warns: if Haftar wins and conquers all of Libya, he will try to impose a dictatorship based on the current Egyptian model. Faced with the alternative between a weak bourgeois GNA government and a strong, counterrevolutionary Haftar regime, revolutionaries have no difficulty in recognizing the lesser evil. The immediate task now must be to defeat the Libyan version of General Sisi!


  1. General Haftar’s journey of changing loyalties reflects the changing relation of forces between the Great Powers. Without doubt he is a long standing traitor and reactionary agent of imperialism. He always has been looking to find the best buyer of his political service. When the decline of the U.S., and Western imperialism in general, became manifest resulting in their reduced political influence in the Middle East, General Haftar – like Sudan’s Bashir, Egypt’s General Sisi, Barzani and others – started to work with Russian and Chinese imperialism in order to get substantial military, political and infrastructure support to maintain their bloody dictatorships. Corporations like Rosneft have become main actors in these diplomatic games, because all these regimes have significant oil reserves and other natural resources, which would be extracted and sold by Russian and Chinese monopolists.


  1. It is no accident that various Stalinist sycophants have sided with the Haftar forces. This is only consistent with their support for other similar representatives of contemporary counterrevolution such as Assad, Putin, and Sisi. The Stalinists and numerous pseudo-leftists failed to support the Libyan Revolution in 2011 on the basis of the foolish claim that Gaddafi had not been toppled by the revolutionary masses but by NATO. It is not without irony that such self-proclaimed “anti-imperialists” who denounced the Arab Revolution from early on as “CIA-backed color revolutions” have ended up now in supporting now long-time pro-US forces like General Haftar, the Kurdish YPG in Syria or the occupation regimes in Iraq and Afghanistan. They justify such grotesque caper by welcoming the struggle of such pro-imperialist forces against which so-called “Islamofascism”. They are unaware of the bizarre character of their claims given the fact that Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates, the alleged main supporters of “Islamism” in the region, are actually the main sponsors of Haftar’s forces!


  1. In fact, NATO’s limited intervention in 2011 was neither the decisive factor in the Libyan Revolution nor did the Western imperialists succeed in subjugating the country. This became obvious when the US and European imperialists failed to install a loyal and powerful regime of lackeys. A particularly visible manifestation of this failure was the explosion of riots in Benghazi in September 2012 following the release of an anti-Islamic film produced by right-wing, American racists. In the course of these riots, the US consulate was stormed and burned down, leaving the American ambassador to Libya, Chris Stevens, and a number of embassy officials and security forces dead. Since then, nearly all Western embassies and foreign companies have fled Libya. In the wake of that “disaster” the Great Powers have been preoccupied with a project of pacification and stabilization. This has translated into, among other efforts, the disarming of tens of thousands of militants and the attempts to dissolve the numerous militias which sprang up with the civil war eight years ago. Libya is a critical country for the big oil corporations as it has the largest proven reserves of oil in Africa. It has become a key supplier of light, sweet crude to European markets. Transforming Libya into a large concentration camp (like Egypt is today) would additionally allow the imperialist EU to better secure its southern border and arrest the flow of migrants.


  1. No one should trust the bourgeois GNA government, the businessmen in Misrata, or the various, petty-bourgeois Islamist forces. They should trust, even less, any call from the United Nations for “de-escalation”. It is crucial that the workers and poor in Libya organize themselves independently in popular militias in order to defeat the counter-revolutionary forces of General Haftar. Such a struggle must be combined with putting the significant oil industry under workers control coupled by the creation of a workers and popular government.


  1. The struggle in Libya is part of the ongoing Arab Revolution. The RCIT calls on revolutionaries to intensify their support for the liberation struggles against the capitalist dictatorships and Great Powers aggression in the Middle East. We call for uniting the popular struggles in Algeria, Syria, Sudan, Libya, Palestine, and Iran into a single Intifada in order to liberate the whole region from reactionary dictatorships, super-exploitation by imperialist monopolies, and Great Power domination. For a socialist federation of workers and peasant republics in the Middle East!




International Secretariat of the RCIT




For our analysis of the Libyan Revolution we refer readers to:


RCIT: Stop the US Bombing of Libya! Mobilize against the Expansion of the Imperialist War! Defeat the Imperialist Aggressors and Their Lackeys in Libya! 23.2.2016,


RCIT: General Sisi, Hollande, Obama: Hands Off Libya! Defeat General Haftars’ Imperialist Lackeys! Down with the Daash-Gang of Killers! For a Workers’ and Popular Government! 26.2.2015,


Michael Pröbsting: Liberation Struggles and Imperialist Interference. The failure of sectarian “anti-imperialism” in the West: Some general considerations from the Marxist point of view and the example of the democratic revolution in Libya in 2011, in Revolutionary Communism No. 5 (2012),


RKOB: After the collapse of the Gaddafi regime: Where now for the Libyan Revolution? in Revolutionary Communism No. 1 (2011),


Michael Pröbsting: The intervention of the imperialist powers in Libya, the struggle of the masses against Gaddafi’s dictatorship and the tactics of revolutionary communists, in Revolutionary Communism No. 1 (2011),




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cropped-supporters_of_britain_red_liberation.pngBangladesh and the Saudi Military Pact


By Apu Sarwar, Revolutionary Communist International Tendency (RCIT), 02 April 2019




Bangladesh and Saudi Arabia signed a treaty of military cooperation in mid-February 2019. There is very little public information about this agreement. Lack of press freedom, secrecy about BD military activities, and a collaborative effort between the government of Bangladesh and national media have kept details of this military pact under wraps.




The Bangladesh Army




The Bangladeshi (BD) army and government, separately and selectively, leaked news of this arrangement in the local media without much elaboration. The BD Army chief acknowledged that 1,800 Bangladeshi military personnel will be deployed along the Saudi-Yemeni border for “non-combat” purposes. The BD Army’s engineering and medical core will also deploy in the Saudi Kingdom. The BD army chief additionally mentioned that his officers will work with the Islamic Military Counter Terrorism Coalition (IMCTC). Saudi Arabia’s military officers are to receive training alongside the Bangladeshi armed forces at the Bangladeshi Military Academy.


In the period since the 1971 founding of Bangladesh, the military has ruled the country directly for 15 of those years. Six percent of the annual budget goes to military spending. The armed forces and government are reluctant to provide any information about military spending. Precise information concerning military expenditures is frequently unavailable. The Bangladesh Army is a gigantic corporate entity. It runs banks, a university; food, textile, jute, and power plants; and it’s responsible for roads, bridges, and other infrastructure projects. It controls billions of dollars worth of property. There is no evidence that ordinary soldiers benefit from these financial activities. Army bureaucrats are the sole beneficiaries of these corporations run by the military.


Any kind of criticism of the military’s activities is virtually banned in Bangladesh. There is undeclared martial law in the Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT); home of many non-Muslim, minority ethnic groups. Since the inception of Bangladesh, the Dhaka administration has carefully settled landless peasants and unemployed people from other parts of the country to eradicate non-Muslim, minority ethnic groups and promote “Islamization” of the area. Bengali settlements in CHT have already destroyed the way of life of the indigenous (Chakma, Marma and other nationalities) peoples. Bengali settlers backed by the Bengali Armed Forces are responsible for ethnic violence. This includes the rape of indigenous women, disappearances, arson, and looting in the CHT. The armed forces play a direct role in maintaining a climate of fear in the area.




An Islamic NATO




The ambition of creating the equivalent of NATO in the Middle East is an old idea backed by the USA. Internal conflicts have previously frustrated this development. However for an extended period of time the six Gulf States (Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Bahrain, Oman, and Qatar) plus Egypt and Jordan have managed some level of military cooperation against their “shared concern” with Iran and its proxy militias. After multiple attempts at establishing an intergovernmental military alliance of Muslim countries, the Islamic Military Counter Terrorism Coalition (IMCTC), was formed in December 2015.


The IMCTC is led by Saudi Arabia and the operational headquarters are in Riyadh. There are 41 Muslim countries in this alliance. Both Iran and Iraq are excluded. The IMCTC has become a vehicle for making Saudi Arabia the dominant national power in the Middle East. The Saudis depend on their close ties with the USA to strengthen this regional status. While the IMCTC is of direct service to Saudi goals, the foreign policies of the balance of the member countries are not based on countering Iran. Hence, its role in the region has related, inherent limitations.




Iran and Saudi Arabia




Saudi Arabia is the regional iron fist of US imperialism. Iran and Saudi Arabia may be fierce rivals but they share similar political foundations. Both capitalist countries have established an authoritarian political system built around their interpretation of Islamic law and both actively maintain support groups in Muslim majority countries. Iran and Saudi Arabia have always had brutal, despotic regimes that do not tolerate human rights, free expression, or the right to independent political organization. These two countries freely arrest, torture, and assassinate citizens who express opinions at variance with their government’s policies. Both Iran and Saudi Arabia have an explicit goal of exporting their brand of Islam beyond their borders.


In the immediate post-WWII period (following the CIA overthrow of Iran’s democratically elected Prime Minister, Mohammad Mosaddegh, and the installation of the Shah, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, in 1953), Iran and Saudi Arab were the “twin pillars” of US policy in the region. However, things changed with the Iranian Islamic Revolution in 1979. The Iranian Islamists called for the overthrow of monarchies and secular governments and their replacement with Islamic republics. This alarmed the Sunni-run Saudi monarchy. The new era of regional hostilities started at this point.




The War in Yemen




Yemen is strategically important. It links the Red Sea with the Gulf of Aden through which most of the world’s oil shipments pass. One of the Arab world’s poorest countries, Yemen is in the midst of an extraordinary humanitarian catastrophe. In 2015, it was ranked 168 out of 188 countries on the Human Development Index, based on the challenges of life expectancy, education, and standard of living. The Yemeni civil war is an ongoing conflict that began in 2011. There are multiple factions. However, the conflict consists of two main antagonists: those led by President Hadi and those led by the Houthis. Both claim to constitute the official government of Yemen. The Houthis are a branch of Shiite Muslims backed by Iran and President Hadi’s forces are backed by Iran’s enemy, Saudi Arabia.


The Houthis came to power in spring 2015 against the background of a popular insurrection against the Hadi regime which implemented a reactionary austerity policy dictated by the International Monetary Fund. The Saudi regime, fearing that this popular rebellion might spread and undermine its regional hegemony, soon intervened and invaded Yemen in order to subjugate the people. Hence, Houthi-led camp has been leading a legitimate defensive, national liberation war while the Saudi aggressors and their local allies are waging an utterly reactionary war. The Revolutionary Communist International Tendency (RCIT) and its comrades in Yemen have stated from the beginning that revolutionaries are obligated to defend Yemen against the Saudi aggression, without lending any political support to the Houthis, which is a petty bourgeois Islamist movement.


Saudi military intervention marks the first time in the kingdom’s history that its army is involved in a major operation abroad without the direct participation of the U.S. Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates have conducted airstrikes in Yemen. The United States and the United Kingdom have both provided logistical support and intelligence to the Saudi-led coalition. Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, Morocco, Sudan, Jordan, and Egypt are also actively participating in the Saudi-led war against Yemen.


Initially, the Saudis thought the war and their related involvement would be short-lived. However the war in Yemen staggers on and continues to evolve in new and explosive directions. This has generated Saudi concerns that the continued success of the Houthis will have a highly negative impact on the Saudi’s domestic politics. Arising from this very real fear, the Saudis are pre-emptively gathering boots on the ground. The Bangladesh-Saudi military pact is a direct response and part of a strategy of mobilizing forces to quell what is regarded by the US-Saudi coalition as a serious regional threat.


The Revolutionary Communist International Tendency (RCIT) demands:


* Down with the Bangladesh-Saudi military alliance!


* Defend Yemen against the al-Saud Gang of Aggressors! Support the resistance led by the Houthi rebels while not giving any political support to their leadership! No return of the reactionary lackey “President” al-Hadi!


* For the founding of popular action councils and armed militias to defend Yemen against Saudi aggression!


* For a Workers’ and Fallahin government defended by popular militias which will expropriate the foreign corporations and the rich domestic capitalists! For the nationalization of the key industries and banks under workers’ control!


* No to reactionary sectarianism – for unity of Sunni and Shia workers and fellahin, one which is based on solidarity and respect for all groups! Down with the Salafi-Takfiri Daesh!


* Down with the reactionary monarchy of Saudi Arabia! Down with the Mullah regime in Iran!


* Unite the national liberation war in Yemen with the liberation struggles in Palestine, Syria, Algeria, Libya, and other countries! Forward to the second wave of the Arab Revolution!




* * * * *




We refer readers to numerous statements and articles which the RCIT has published on the Yemeni war:


RCIT: After the Death of Saleh: Continue the Defense of Yemen against the Al-Saud Gang of Aggressors! 12.10.2017,


Almedina Gunić: Yemen – Thirsty, Sick and War-Ridden! 02.10.2017,


RCIT: Yemen: Condemn the Massacre in Sana’a! Down with the Al-Saud Gang of Aggressors! 11.10.2016,


RCIT: Greetings to the Yemeni ‘Socialists against Aggression’, 15 July 2016,


RCIT: Revolution and Counterrevolution in the Arab World: An Acid Test for Revolutionaries, 31 May 2015, in: Revolutionary Communism No. 36,


RCIT: Yemen: The al-Hadi Puppet Government Calls for an Imperialist Invasion!  Victory to Yemen! Defeat the Al-Saud Gang of Aggressors! 8.5.2015, in: Revolutionary Communism No. 36,


Yossi Schwartz: The War in Yemen, Iran and US-Imperialism, 20.4.2015, in: Revolutionary Communism No. 35,


RCIT: Defend Yemen against the Al-Saud Gang of Aggressors! No to Sectarian Divisions and Civil War! For a Workers’ and Popular Government! Joint Statement of the International Secretariat of the Revolutionary Communist International Tendency (RCIT) and the RCIT Yemen, 3.4.2015, in: Revolutionary Communism No. 34,


Mohammed Al Wazeer: Yemen Under Attack, RCIT Yemen, 15.4.2015,


RCIT: Yemen: Down with the Price Hikes! For a “Second Revolution” to Establish a Workers and Fallahin Government! 3.9.2014, in: Revolutionary Communism No. 27,


Yemen: The Mass Protests continue, Report from a Yemeni Supporter of the RCIT, 4.9.2014, in: Revolutionary Communism No. 27,


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cropped-supporters_of_britain_red_liberation.pngNigeria: Tinubu Goofed Yet Again

Lagosians Deserve Government-Funded Mass Housing


by Ayowole Sanyaolu Mar 20, 2019


(First published by the Sahara Reporter,




For the past few days now, Nigeria has been thrown into a mournful mood. From the return of Buhari as President to the tragic death of Prof. Pious Adesanmi. No sooner had we recovered from these pathetic occurrences than we have been confronted with an avalanche of other tragedies. My prayers and heartrending condolences are with the families of young pupils who are victims of the Ita faaji and the Lagos Island building collapse. Yet again, our children, the future of our dear country, have been sacrificed on the altar ineptitude and crass irresponsibility of the Nigerian ruling elite.


For the records, the categories of persons who are being mourned in the past few days did not meet their deaths by sheer force of fate or destiny, they were killed and made victims of systemic failure. And there have been many more who have died under worse circumstances. Scores of promising Nigerians have lost their lives to our poor health system. LUTH and LASUTH are both embarrassing eyesores. Both hospitals have been more magnificent in taking lives than efficient in saving them. Our roads are death traps with potholes already assuming the size of very large drainages.


Without losing sight of subject of discourse, Bola Tinubu, in his response to the recent tragic occurrences of collapse of buildings, advised the Lagos State government to fast-track the process of demolishing marked buildings. This statement would have hoodwinked the unsuspecting few into the false assumption that Tinubu’s statement was coming from the part of his heart that houses empathy for the victims of this tragedy. On the contrary, beneath the facade of sympathy lies his real intent, which is centred at attacking the livelihood of poor and hopeless Lagosians. This is not to say that I intend that government continues to indulge defective buildings. Not at all. However, can someone just help ask Tinubu whose responsibility it is to provide adequate shelter? Unlike Lateef Jakande whose administration built several low-cost housing and tertiary institutions, all of which are still in existence today, Tinubu and his proteges who succeeded him couldn’t build a single tertiary institution neither did they lay a foundation for low-cost housing.


What they have been doing instead has been to commercialise our universities as Fashola did with LASU in 2011. Fashola’s so-called low-cost housing remains till date unaffordable to an average Nigerian worker.


From Tinubu to the regime of Fashola and down to the administration of Ambode, the Lagos State government has rather been in the business of demolishing houses of poor Lagosians. Ambode in 2017 alone demolished several houses and market places, including Otodogbame, Ilubirin, Sabo and several others. These inhumane actions perpetrated by the government remain one of the worst humanitarian disasters witnessed in our country in recent times. Several persons were killed, while scores of others recorded unbearable property losses to the tune of millions. In all of this, government saw no reason to compensate persons it rendered homeless overnight and neither has it devised any initiative to compensate scores of others whose means of livelihood were permanently destroyed through the demolition of market places where our most vulnerable citizens are known to make a living.


As moribund as the Nigerian constitution may seem, it nevertheless spelt out some very cogent responsibilities of government to its citizens. Chapter 2 Section 14 of the Constitution stated unequivocally that security and welfare of the citizens shall be the exclusive responsibility of government. Proceeding to Section 16 Subsection 2d, it was boldly written that government shall provide good and adequate shelter for its citizens.


This is the position of the Constitution. And now that Tinubu is proposing that government speed up the process of demolition, is he also proposing that government also provides alternative homes for persons who would become homeless? Is he also proposing that government begins building low-cost housing on a massive scale? A kind of housing in which an average worker that may soon be earning a paltry N30,000 minimum wage can conveniently afford? Lagos has always prided itself as the fifth largest economy in Africa with GDP higher than the economy of five neighbouring African countries put together. The government, in fact, recently announced a rise in GDP by a whopping sum of N32.99billion. This new development has placed the Lagos State economy far higher than that of 33 states combined.


This remarkable economic stride has only found relevance in the bank accounts of Tinubu, friends, families and proteges. While Tinubu and friends get richer with increased Lagos GDP, Lagosians have in fact become poorer; more Lagosians have become homeless, more Lagosians have become Jobless, more students have become dropouts with rising number of out-of-school children. Despite remarkable economic strides, this glorified slum according to the economists, is the worst city to live in the world next to Damascus in war torn Syria.


It is therefore very expedient at this moment that we all rise as citizens to demand that this new rise in the GDP should henceforth be put to the construction of mass housing, funding/building of new hospitals of modern standards, building of schools of modern categories, modern transportation, roads and support for free health and free education at all levels. Lagos money should be put into such relevance rather than saving it in Tinubu’s private vault where some of it would find its way into bullion vans in the course of the next elections.




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cropped-supporters_of_britain_red_liberation.pngChina’s Billionaire Lawmakers


A telling comparison of extremely wealthy Chinese lawmakers with their peers in the US Congress


By Michael Pröbsting, International Secretary of the Revolutionary Communist International Tendency (RCIT), 9 March 2019,




The Hong Kong-based South China Morning Post recently published a highly interesting report about the wealth of China’s lawmakers. [1] The paper is known as a serious source and it certainly knows what it’s talking about as it is owned by the Alibaba Group, a Chinese multinational technology corporation headed by Jack Ma, one of the wealthiest people in the world.


According to the SCMP, China’s lawmakers suffered a decline of their wealth last year as a result of the crisis in the stock market. The Shanghai Composite Index declined by 24.6% in 2018; Hong Kong’s Hang Seng Index fell 13.6%, while the Hang Seng China Enterprises Index fell 13.5%. (This has been a global development: the Tokyo Stock Exchange lost 43% of its value in market capitalization.) [2]


Still, they have hardly any reason to complain. The article reports that out of the 5,000 delegates of China’s legislature, 93 are dollar-denominated billionaires. (Unfortunately the report does not tell us how many of China’s lawmakers are millionaires but the figure must be obviously substantially larger.) Despite the stock market decline, these dollar-denominated billionaires/lawmakers have an accumulated wealth of US$504 billion!


The SCMP adds: “By comparison, the 50 richest members of the US Congress had a combined wealth of US$2 billion in 2016, according to Roll Call’s data. Darrell Issa, co-founder of automobile components maker Directed Electronics, and the Republican Representative for California, was the wealthiest congressman that year, with a net worth of US$283.3 million.


This is without doubt a remarkable figure: China’s 93 billionaires’ lawmakers have an accumulated wealth of US$504 billion while the 50 richest members of the US Congress have a combined wealth of “only” US$2 billion!


This confirms, once more, the RCIT’s analysis of the emergence of a powerful capitalist class in China. We have elaborated in numerous studies that China has not only become a capitalist country in the early 1990s but it even transformed into an imperialist Great Power in the past decade. [3] In the last few years, China has even become the country with the largest (according to Chinese sources) or second-largest (according to Western sources) number of billionaires. [4] The latest issue of the China-based Hurun Report states that “China leads world for 4th year for billionaires with 658, 74 ahead of USA with 584.[5]


The substantially higher number of millionaires among Chinese lawmakers, compared with the U.S., results from the different, historically conditioned, physiognomy of China’s ruling capitalist class. American monopoly capitalists are a much “older”, longer-existing class. It has established a political and social division of labor. Billionaires don’t need to enter Congress in order to implement their dictates. They have, at their disposal, trusted politicians who act as loyal executives.


China’s monopoly bourgeoisie is a much younger class. It has existed only two or three decades. It is led by a much more centralized leadership. Without this structure, China could have not succeeded in catching up to the older, Western Great Powers. (China’s economy as a whole is still more backward than the U.S., European, or Japanese rivals.) As a result, China’s ruling class has a less established division of labor. Business and politics are more directly united at the personal level.


It is a sad joke that there are still a number of Stalinist, Bolivarian and pseudo-Trotskyist forces which continue to praise China as a “socialist” or “workers state” (with or without deformations). As we have demonstrated in our latest book, this claim is in full contradiction to the reality and only serves to conceal social-imperialist support for a Great Power that is now challenging U.S. imperialism for global hegemony. [6]


We repeat – revolutionaries must defend the interests of China’s working class and oppressed peoples against the Stalinist-capitalist regime. [7] Socialists around the world must not lend support to any imperialist state. Down with all Great Powers – the U.S., China, Russia, Japan and the EU! [8] We call on revolutionaries to join the RCIT in building a Revolutionary World Party that fights for international socialism!






[1] Yujing Liu: China’s billionaire lawmakers are fewer and less wealthy, as 2018 stock market rout crimped their ranks and fortunes, 6 Mar, 2019

[2] We refer readers for an overview of the state of the capitalist world economy which is close to another Great Recession to the chapter “World Economy: The Next Great Recession is About to Begin” of the RCIT’s World Perspectives 2019 (

[3] For a detailed analysis of China’s capitalism and its rise to a new imperialist Great Power, we refer readers to the numerous RCIT publications which can be found in a special section on our website: On the process of capitalist restoration see e.g. Michael Pröbsting: China‘s transformation into an imperialist power. A study of the economic, political and military aspects of China as a Great Power, in: Revolutionary Communism No. 4,

[4] Michael Pröbsting China: A Paradise for Billionaires. The latest UBS/PwC Report about the Global Super-Rich Delivers another Crushing Blow to the Stalinist Myth of China’s “Socialism”, 27.10.2018,

[5] Loong Palace: Hurun Global Rich List 2019, 2019-02-26,

[6] Michael Pröbsting: Anti-Imperialism in the Age of Great Power Rivalry. The Factors behind the Accelerating Rivalry between the U.S., China, Russia, EU and Japan. A Critique of the Left’s Analysis and an Outline of the Marxist Perspective, RCIT Books, January 2019,

[7] See e.g. Michael Pröbsting: China: Defend the Muslim Uyghurs against Oppression! 18.10.2018,

[8] See on this, in addition to our new book on Great Power rivalry: RCIT: Theses on Revolutionary Defeatism in Imperialist States. Resolution of the International Executive Committee of the Revolutionary Communist International Tendency (RCIT), 8 September 2018,; RCIT: Global Trade War: No to Great Power Jingoism in West and East! Neither Imperialist Globalization nor Imperialist Protectionism! For International Solidarity and Joint Struggle of the Working Class and Oppressed People! 4 July 2018,


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